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APA 6th ed. • MLA 8th ed. • Chicago 16th ed.

Chicago Style Guide

Footnotes – Chicago Bibliography

  • In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text.
  • To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase.
  • Citation numbers should appear in sequential order.
  • Each number then corresponds to a citation, a footnote or to an endnote.
  • Endnotes must appear on an endnotes page. The page should be titled Notes (centered at top).¬†This page should appear immediately before the bibliography page.
  • Footnotes must appear at the bottom of the page that they are referred to. ¬†

Cole found that "The bones were very fragile".1

Each superscript then refers to a numbered citation in the footnotes or endnotes.


The first time the in-text reference is cited you must include, author's first name, author's last name, title, place of publication, publisher name, year and referenced pages. e.g.

1. James Smith, The first and last war, (New York, Hamilton, 2003), 2.

If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. e.g.

2. Smith, The first, 220-221.

If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g.

3. Ibid., 786.

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