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Chicago Style Guide

General Rules – Chicago Bibliography

  • Bibliography: Create the bibliography page at the end of your paper on a new page. Label this page bibliography at the top middle of the page. Do not underline, bold, enlarge or use quotes for the word Bibliography. The bibliography should include all sources cited within the work and may sometimes include other relevant sources that were not cited but provide further reading.
  • Capitalization: Capitalize the first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words (nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and some conjunctions. English-language book titles and subtitles are capitalized headline-style. In headline style, the first and last words of title and subtitle and all other major words are capitalized.
  • Electronic sources: DOI or URL Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the publication or book lists one. A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no DOI is available, list a URL.
  • Abbreviations:
    • ed. or eds. = editor(s)
    • ed. = edition
  • Order: List the sources in alphabetical order by the authors' last names. Ignore "A," "And," and "The" when alphabetizing by title if an author is not listed.
  • Indentation: Do not indent the first line in the citation; however, you must indent any additional lines 1/2". One way to do this is with a hanging indent.
  • Italics or quotation marks: Titles of books, journals and websites are italicized. Titles of articles, chapters, webpages, etc. are placed in quotation marks.
  • Punctuation: In a bibliography, all major elements are separated by periods.
  • Spacing: Entries should be single-spaced, but there should be a blank line between each entry.


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